Represents the schema of an SQL table in an abstract way. This class provides methods for manipulating the schema representation.

Inside migration files, the t object in create_table is actually of this type:

class SomeMigration < ActiveRecord::Migration
  def up
    create_table :foo do |t|
      puts t.class  # => "ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::TableDefinition"

  def down

The table definitions The Columns are stored as a ColumnDefinition in the columns attribute.

[R] as
[R] foreign_keys
[RW] indexes

An array of ColumnDefinition objects, representing the column changes that have been defined.

[R] name
[R] options
[R] temporary
Class Public methods
new(types, name, temporary, options, as = nil)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb, line 99
def initialize(types, name, temporary, options, as = nil)
  @columns_hash = {}
  @indexes = {}
  @foreign_keys = []
  @native = types
  @temporary = temporary
  @options = options
  @as = as
  @name = name
Instance Public methods

Returns a ColumnDefinition for the column with name name.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb, line 119
def [](name)
Alias for: references
column(name, type, options = {})

Instantiates a new column for the table. The type parameter is normally one of the migrations native types, which is one of the following: :primary_key, :string, :text, :integer, :float, :decimal, :datetime, :time, :date, :binary, :boolean.

You may use a type not in this list as long as it is supported by your database (for example, “polygon” in MySQL), but this will not be database agnostic and should usually be avoided.

Available options are (none of these exists by default):

  • :limit - Requests a maximum column length. This is number of characters for :string and :text columns and number of bytes for :binary and :integer columns.

  • :default - The column's default value. Use nil for NULL.

  • :null - Allows or disallows NULL values in the column. This option could have been named :null_allowed.

  • :precision - Specifies the precision for a :decimal column.

  • :scale - Specifies the scale for a :decimal column.

  • :index - Create an index for the column. Can be either true or an options hash.

Note: The precision is the total number of significant digits and the scale is the number of digits that can be stored following the decimal point. For example, the number 123.45 has a precision of 5 and a scale of 2. A decimal with a precision of 5 and a scale of 2 can range from -999.99 to 999.99.

Please be aware of different RDBMS implementations behavior with :decimal columns:

  • The SQL standard says the default scale should be 0, :scale <= :precision, and makes no comments about the requirements of :precision.

  • MySQL: :precision [1..63], :scale [0..30]. Default is (10,0).

  • PostgreSQL: :precision [1..infinity], :scale [0..infinity]. No default.

  • SQLite2: Any :precision and :scale may be used. Internal storage as strings. No default.

  • SQLite3: No restrictions on :precision and :scale, but the maximum supported :precision is 16. No default.

  • Oracle: :precision [1..38], :scale [-84..127]. Default is (38,0).

  • DB2: :precision [1..63], :scale [0..62]. Default unknown.

  • SqlServer?: :precision [1..38], :scale [0..38]. Default (38,0).

This method returns self.


# Assuming +td+ is an instance of TableDefinition
td.column(:granted, :boolean)
# granted BOOLEAN

td.column(:picture, :binary, limit: 2.megabytes)
# => picture BLOB(2097152)

td.column(:sales_stage, :string, limit: 20, default: 'new', null: false)
# => sales_stage VARCHAR(20) DEFAULT 'new' NOT NULL

td.column(:bill_gates_money, :decimal, precision: 15, scale: 2)
# => bill_gates_money DECIMAL(15,2)

td.column(:sensor_reading, :decimal, precision: 30, scale: 20)
# => sensor_reading DECIMAL(30,20)

# While <tt>:scale</tt> defaults to zero on most databases, it
# probably wouldn't hurt to include it.
td.column(:huge_integer, :decimal, precision: 30)
# => huge_integer DECIMAL(30)

# Defines a column with a database-specific type.
td.column(:foo, 'polygon')
# => foo polygon

Short-hand examples

Instead of calling column directly, you can also work with the short-hand definitions for the default types. They use the type as the method name instead of as a parameter and allow for multiple columns to be defined in a single statement.

What can be written like this with the regular calls to column:

create_table :products do |t|
  t.column :shop_id,     :integer
  t.column :creator_id,  :integer
  t.column :item_number, :string
  t.column :name,        :string, default: "Untitled"
  t.column :value,       :string, default: "Untitled"
  t.column :created_at,  :datetime
  t.column :updated_at,  :datetime
add_index :products, :item_number

can also be written as follows using the short-hand:

create_table :products do |t|
  t.integer :shop_id, :creator_id
  t.string  :item_number, index: true
  t.string  :name, :value, default: "Untitled"
  t.timestamps null: false

There's a short-hand method for each of the type values declared at the top. And then there's #timestamps that'll add created_at and updated_at as datetimes.

#references will add an appropriately-named _id column, plus a corresponding _type column if the :polymorphic option is supplied. If :polymorphic is a hash of options, these will be used when creating the _type column. The :index option will also create an index, similar to calling add_index. So what can be written like this:

create_table :taggings do |t|
  t.integer :tag_id, :tagger_id, :taggable_id
  t.string  :tagger_type
  t.string  :taggable_type, default: 'Photo'
add_index :taggings, :tag_id, name: 'index_taggings_on_tag_id'
add_index :taggings, [:tagger_id, :tagger_type]

Can also be written as follows using references:

create_table :taggings do |t|
  t.references :tag, index: { name: 'index_taggings_on_tag_id' }
  t.references :tagger, polymorphic: true, index: true
  t.references :taggable, polymorphic: { default: 'Photo' }
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb, line 256
def column(name, type, options = {})
  name = name.to_s
  type = type.to_sym
  options = options.dup

  if @columns_hash[name] && @columns_hash[name].primary_key?
    raise ArgumentError, "you can't redefine the primary key column '#{name}'. To define a custom primary key, pass { id: false } to create_table."

  index_options = options.delete(:index)
  index(name, index_options.is_a?(Hash) ? index_options : {}) if index_options
  @columns_hash[name] = new_column_definition(name, type, options)
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb, line 110
def columns; @columns_hash.values; end
index(column_name, options = {})

Adds index options to the indexes hash, keyed by column name This is primarily used to track indexes that need to be created after the table

index(:account_id, name: 'index_projects_on_account_id')
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb, line 287
def index(column_name, options = {})
  indexes[column_name] = options
primary_key(name, type = :primary_key, options = {})

Appends a primary key definition to the table definition. Can be called multiple times, but this is probably not a good idea.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb, line 114
def primary_key(name, type = :primary_key, options = {})
  column(name, type, options.merge(:primary_key => true))

Adds a reference.

t.belongs_to(:supplier, foreign_key: true)

See ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::SchemaStatements#add_reference for details of the options you can use.

Also aliased as: belongs_to
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb, line 312
def references(*args)
  options = args.extract_options!
  polymorphic = options.delete(:polymorphic)
  index_options = options.delete(:index)
  foreign_key_options = options.delete(:foreign_key)
  type = options.delete(:type) || :integer

  if polymorphic && foreign_key_options
    raise ArgumentError, "Cannot add a foreign key on a polymorphic relation"

  args.each do |col|
    column("#{col}_id", type, options)
    column("#{col}_type", :string, polymorphic.is_a?(Hash) ? polymorphic : options) if polymorphic
    index(polymorphic ? %w(type id).map { |t| "#{col}_#{t}" } : "#{col}_id", index_options.is_a?(Hash) ? index_options : {}) if index_options
    if foreign_key_options
      to_table = Base.pluralize_table_names ? col.to_s.pluralize : col.to_s
      foreign_key(to_table, foreign_key_options.is_a?(Hash) ? foreign_key_options : {})
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb, line 271
def remove_column(name)
  @columns_hash.delete name.to_s

Appends :datetime columns :created_at and :updated_at to the table. See ActiveRecord::ConnectionAdapters::SchemaStatements#add_timestamps

t.timestamps null: false
# File activerecord/lib/active_record/connection_adapters/abstract/schema_definitions.rb, line 299
def timestamps(*args)
  options = args.extract_options!
  emit_warning_if_null_unspecified(:timestamps, options)
  column(:created_at, :datetime, options)
  column(:updated_at, :datetime, options)