This module provides methods for generating HTML that links views to assets such as images, JavaScripts, stylesheets, and feeds. These methods do not verify the assets exist before linking to them:

# => <img src="/assets/rails.png" />
# => <link href="/assets/application.css?body=1" media="screen" rel="stylesheet" />
Included Modules
Instance Public methods

Returns an HTML audio tag for the sources. If sources is a string, a single audio tag will be returned. If sources is an array, an audio tag with nested source tags for each source will be returned. The sources can be full paths or files that exist in your public audios directory.

When the last parameter is a hash you can add HTML attributes using that parameter.

# => <audio src="/audios/sound"></audio>
# => <audio src="/audios/sound.wav"></audio>
audio_tag("sound.wav", autoplay: true, controls: true)
# => <audio autoplay="autoplay" controls="controls" src="/audios/sound.wav"></audio>
audio_tag("sound.wav", "sound.mid")
# => <audio><source src="/audios/sound.wav" /><source src="/audios/sound.mid" /></audio>
# File actionview/lib/action_view/helpers/asset_tag_helper.rb, line 451
def audio_tag(*sources)
  multiple_sources_tag_builder("audio", sources)

Returns a link tag that browsers and feed readers can use to auto-detect an RSS, Atom, or JSON feed. The type can be :rss (default), :atom, or :json. Control the link options in url_for format using the url_options. You can modify the LINK tag itself in tag_options.

  • :rel - Specify the relation of this link, defaults to “alternate”

  • :type - Override the auto-generated mime type

  • :title - Specify the title of the link, defaults to the type

# => <link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS" href="" />
# => <link rel="alternate" type="application/atom+xml" title="ATOM" href="" />
# => <link rel="alternate" type="application/json" title="JSON" href="" />
auto_discovery_link_tag(:rss, {action: "feed"})
# => <link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS" href="" />
auto_discovery_link_tag(:rss, {action: "feed"}, {title: "My RSS"})
# => <link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="My RSS" href="" />
auto_discovery_link_tag(:rss, {controller: "news", action: "feed"})
# => <link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="RSS" href="" />
auto_discovery_link_tag(:rss, "", {title: "Example RSS"})
# => <link rel="alternate" type="application/rss+xml" title="Example RSS" href="" />

Returns a link tag for a favicon managed by the asset pipeline.

If a page has no link like the one generated by this helper, browsers ask for /favicon.ico automatically, and cache the file if the request succeeds. If the favicon changes it is hard to get it updated.

To have better control applications may let the asset pipeline manage their favicon storing the file under app/assets/images, and using this helper to generate its corresponding link tag.

The helper gets the name of the favicon file as first argument, which defaults to “favicon.ico”, and also supports :rel and :type options to override their defaults, “shortcut icon” and “image/x-icon” respectively:

# => <link href="/assets/favicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon" type="image/x-icon" />

favicon_link_tag 'myicon.ico'
# => <link href="/assets/myicon.ico" rel="shortcut icon" type="image/x-icon" />

Mobile Safari looks for a different link tag, pointing to an image that will be used if you add the page to the home screen of an iOS device. The following call would generate such a tag:

favicon_link_tag 'mb-icon.png', rel: 'apple-touch-icon', type: 'image/png'
# => <link href="/assets/mb-icon.png" rel="apple-touch-icon" type="image/png" />

Returns a string suitable for an HTML image tag alt attribute. The src argument is meant to be an image file path. The method removes the basename of the file path and the digest, if any. It also removes hyphens and underscores from file names and replaces them with spaces, returning a space-separated, titleized string.


# => Rails

# => Hyphenated file name

# => Underscored file name
# File actionview/lib/action_view/helpers/asset_tag_helper.rb, line 375
def image_alt(src)
  ActiveSupport::Deprecation.warn("image_alt is deprecated and will be removed from Rails 6.0. You must explicitly set alt text on images.")

  File.basename(src, ".*".freeze).sub(/-[[:xdigit:]]{32,64}\z/, "".freeze).tr("-_".freeze, " ".freeze).capitalize
image_tag(source, options = {})

Returns an HTML image tag for the source. The source can be a full path, a file, or an Active Storage attachment.


You can add HTML attributes using the options. The options supports additional keys for convenience and conformance:

  • :size - Supplied as “{Width}x{Height}” or “{Number}”, so “30x45” becomes width=“30” and height=“45”, and “50” becomes width=“50” and height=“50”. :size will be ignored if the value is not in the correct format.

  • :srcset - If supplied as a hash or array of [source, descriptor] pairs, each image path will be expanded before the list is formatted as a string.


Assets (images that are part of your app):

# => <img src="/assets/icon" />
# => <img src="/assets/icon.png" />
image_tag("icon.png", size: "16x10", alt: "Edit Entry")
# => <img src="/assets/icon.png" width="16" height="10" alt="Edit Entry" />
image_tag("/icons/icon.gif", size: "16")
# => <img src="/icons/icon.gif" width="16" height="16" />
image_tag("/icons/icon.gif", height: '32', width: '32')
# => <img height="32" src="/icons/icon.gif" width="32" />
image_tag("/icons/icon.gif", class: "menu_icon")
# => <img class="menu_icon" src="/icons/icon.gif" />
image_tag("/icons/icon.gif", data: { title: 'Rails Application' })
# => <img data-title="Rails Application" src="/icons/icon.gif" />
image_tag("icon.png", srcset: { "icon_2x.png" => "2x", "icon_4x.png" => "4x" })
# => <img src="/assets/icon.png" srcset="/assets/icon_2x.png 2x, /assets/icon_4x.png 4x">
image_tag("pic.jpg", srcset: [["pic_1024.jpg", "1024w"], ["pic_1980.jpg", "1980w"]], sizes: "100vw")
# => <img src="/assets/pic.jpg" srcset="/assets/pic_1024.jpg 1024w, /assets/pic_1980.jpg 1980w" sizes="100vw">

Active Storage (images that are uploaded by the users of your app):

# => <img src="/rails/active_storage/blobs/.../tiger.jpg" />
image_tag(user.avatar.variant(resize: "100x100"))
# => <img src="/rails/active_storage/variants/.../tiger.jpg" />
image_tag(user.avatar.variant(resize: "100x100"), size: '100')
# => <img width="100" height="100" src="/rails/active_storage/variants/.../tiger.jpg" />
# File actionview/lib/action_view/helpers/asset_tag_helper.rb, line 340
def image_tag(source, options = {})
  options = options.symbolize_keys
  skip_pipeline = options.delete(:skip_pipeline)

  options[:src] = resolve_image_source(source, skip_pipeline)

  if options[:srcset] && !options[:srcset].is_a?(String)
    options[:srcset] = options[:srcset].map do |src_path, size|
      src_path = path_to_image(src_path, skip_pipeline: skip_pipeline)
      "#{src_path} #{size}"
    end.join(", ")

  options[:width], options[:height] = extract_dimensions(options.delete(:size)) if options[:size]
  tag("img", options)

Returns an HTML script tag for each of the sources provided.

Sources may be paths to JavaScript files. Relative paths are assumed to be relative to assets/javascripts, full paths are assumed to be relative to the document root. Relative paths are idiomatic, use absolute paths only when needed.

When passing paths, the “.js” extension is optional. If you do not want “.js” appended to the path extname: false can be set on the options.

You can modify the HTML attributes of the script tag by passing a hash as the last argument.

When the Asset Pipeline is enabled, you can pass the name of your manifest as source, and include other JavaScript or CoffeeScript files inside the manifest.

If the server supports Early Hints header links for these assets will be automatically pushed.


When the last parameter is a hash you can add HTML attributes using that parameter. The following options are supported:

  • :extname - Append an extension to the generated URL unless the extension already exists. This only applies for relative URLs.

  • :protocol - Sets the protocol of the generated URL. This option only applies when a relative URL and host options are provided.

  • :host - When a relative URL is provided the host is added to the that path.

  • :skip_pipeline - This option is used to bypass the asset pipeline when it is set to true.

  • <tt>:nonce<tt> - When set to true, adds an automatic nonce value if you have Content Security Policy enabled.


javascript_include_tag "xmlhr"
# => <script src="/assets/xmlhr.debug-1284139606.js"></script>

javascript_include_tag "xmlhr", host: "localhost", protocol: "https"
# => <script src="https://localhost/assets/xmlhr.debug-1284139606.js"></script>

javascript_include_tag "template.jst", extname: false
# => <script src="/assets/template.debug-1284139606.jst"></script>

javascript_include_tag "xmlhr.js"
# => <script src="/assets/xmlhr.debug-1284139606.js"></script>

javascript_include_tag "common.javascript", "/elsewhere/cools"
# => <script src="/assets/common.javascript.debug-1284139606.js"></script>
#    <script src="/elsewhere/cools.debug-1284139606.js"></script>

javascript_include_tag ""
# => <script src=""></script>

javascript_include_tag ""
# => <script src=""></script>

javascript_include_tag "", nonce: true
# => <script src="" nonce="..."></script>
# File actionview/lib/action_view/helpers/asset_tag_helper.rb, line 87
def javascript_include_tag(*sources)
  options = sources.extract_options!.stringify_keys
  path_options = options.extract!("protocol", "extname", "host", "skip_pipeline").symbolize_keys
  early_hints_links = []

  sources_tags = { |source|
    href = path_to_javascript(source, path_options)
    early_hints_links << "<#{href}>; rel=preload; as=script"
    tag_options = {
      "src" => href
    if tag_options["nonce"] == true
      tag_options["nonce"] = content_security_policy_nonce
    content_tag("script".freeze, "", tag_options)

  request.send_early_hints("Link" => early_hints_links.join("\n")) if respond_to?(:request) && request


Returns a link tag that browsers can use to preload the source. The source can be the path of a resource managed by asset pipeline, a full path, or an URI.

  • :type - Override the auto-generated mime type, defaults to the mime type for source extension.

  • :as - Override the auto-generated value for as attribute, calculated using source extension and mime type.

  • :crossorigin - Specify the crossorigin attribute, required to load cross-origin resources.

  • :nopush - Specify if the use of server push is not desired for the resource. Defaults to false.

# => <link rel="preload" href="/assets/custom_theme.css" as="style" type="text/css" />

# => <link rel="preload" href="/videos/video.mp4" as="video" type="video/webm" />

preload_link_tag(post_path(format: :json), as: "fetch")
# => <link rel="preload" href="/posts.json" as="fetch" type="application/json" />

preload_link_tag("worker.js", as: "worker")
# => <link rel="preload" href="/assets/worker.js" as="worker" type="text/javascript" />

# => <link rel="preload" href="//" as="font" type="font/woff2" crossorigin="anonymous"/>

preload_link_tag("//", crossorigin: "use-credentials")
# => <link rel="preload" href="//" as="font" type="font/woff2" crossorigin="use-credentials" />

preload_link_tag("/media/audio.ogg", nopush: true)
# => <link rel="preload" href="/media/audio.ogg" as="audio" type="audio/ogg" />

Returns a stylesheet link tag for the sources specified as arguments. If you don't specify an extension, .css will be appended automatically. You can modify the link attributes by passing a hash as the last argument. For historical reasons, the 'media' attribute will always be present and defaults to “screen”, so you must explicitly set it to “all” for the stylesheet(s) to apply to all media types.

If the server supports Early Hints header links for these assets will be automatically pushed.

stylesheet_link_tag "style"
# => <link href="/assets/style.css" media="screen" rel="stylesheet" />

stylesheet_link_tag "style.css"
# => <link href="/assets/style.css" media="screen" rel="stylesheet" />

stylesheet_link_tag ""
# => <link href="" media="screen" rel="stylesheet" />

stylesheet_link_tag "style", media: "all"
# => <link href="/assets/style.css" media="all" rel="stylesheet" />

stylesheet_link_tag "style", media: "print"
# => <link href="/assets/style.css" media="print" rel="stylesheet" />

stylesheet_link_tag "random.styles", "/css/stylish"
# => <link href="/assets/random.styles" media="screen" rel="stylesheet" />
#    <link href="/css/stylish.css" media="screen" rel="stylesheet" />

Returns an HTML video tag for the sources. If sources is a string, a single video tag will be returned. If sources is an array, a video tag with nested source tags for each source will be returned. The sources can be full paths or files that exist in your public videos directory.


When the last parameter is a hash you can add HTML attributes using that parameter. The following options are supported:

  • :poster - Set an image (like a screenshot) to be shown before the video loads. The path is calculated like the src of image_tag.

  • :size - Supplied as “{Width}x{Height}” or “{Number}”, so “30x45” becomes width=“30” and height=“45”, and “50” becomes width=“50” and height=“50”. :size will be ignored if the value is not in the correct format.

  • :poster_skip_pipeline will bypass the asset pipeline when using the :poster option instead using an asset in the public folder.


# => <video src="/videos/trailer"></video>
# => <video src="/videos/trailer.ogg"></video>
video_tag("trailer.ogg", controls: true, preload: 'none')
# => <video preload="none" controls="controls" src="/videos/trailer.ogg"></video>
video_tag("trailer.m4v", size: "16x10", poster: "screenshot.png")
# => <video src="/videos/trailer.m4v" width="16" height="10" poster="/assets/screenshot.png"></video>
video_tag("trailer.m4v", size: "16x10", poster: "screenshot.png", poster_skip_pipeline: true)
# => <video src="/videos/trailer.m4v" width="16" height="10" poster="screenshot.png"></video>
video_tag("/trailers/hd.avi", size: "16x16")
# => <video src="/trailers/hd.avi" width="16" height="16"></video>
video_tag("/trailers/hd.avi", size: "16")
# => <video height="16" src="/trailers/hd.avi" width="16"></video>
video_tag("/trailers/hd.avi", height: '32', width: '32')
# => <video height="32" src="/trailers/hd.avi" width="32"></video>
video_tag("trailer.ogg", "trailer.flv")
# => <video><source src="/videos/trailer.ogg" /><source src="/videos/trailer.flv" /></video>
video_tag(["trailer.ogg", "trailer.flv"])
# => <video><source src="/videos/trailer.ogg" /><source src="/videos/trailer.flv" /></video>
video_tag(["trailer.ogg", "trailer.flv"], size: "160x120")
# => <video height="120" width="160"><source src="/videos/trailer.ogg" /><source src="/videos/trailer.flv" /></video>
# File actionview/lib/action_view/helpers/asset_tag_helper.rb, line 424
def video_tag(*sources)
  options = sources.extract_options!.symbolize_keys
  public_poster_folder = options.delete(:poster_skip_pipeline)
  sources << options
  multiple_sources_tag_builder("video", sources) do |tag_options|
    tag_options[:poster] = path_to_image(tag_options[:poster], skip_pipeline: public_poster_folder) if tag_options[:poster]
    tag_options[:width], tag_options[:height] = extract_dimensions(tag_options.delete(:size)) if tag_options[:size]