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Included Modules

Instance Public methods

has_secure_password(attribute = :password, validations: true)

Adds methods to set and authenticate against a BCrypt password. This mechanism requires you to have a XXX_digest attribute, where XXX is the attribute name of your desired password.

The following validations are added automatically:

  • Password must be present on creation

  • Password length should be less than or equal to 72 bytes

  • Confirmation of password (using a XXX_confirmation attribute)

If confirmation validation is not needed, simply leave out the value for XXX_confirmation (i.e. don’t provide a form field for it). When this attribute has a nil value, the validation will not be triggered.

Additionally, a XXX_challenge attribute is created. When set to a value other than nil, it will validate against the currently persisted password. This validation relies on dirty tracking, as provided by ActiveModel::Dirty; if dirty tracking methods are not defined, this validation will fail.

All of the above validations can be omitted by passing validations: false as an argument. This allows complete customizability of validation behavior.

To use has_secure_password, add bcrypt (~> 3.1.7) to your Gemfile:

gem 'bcrypt', '~> 3.1.7'


Using Active Record (which automatically includes ActiveModel::SecurePassword)
# Schema: User(name:string, password_digest:string, recovery_password_digest:string)
class User < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_secure_password :recovery_password, validations: false

user = "david", password: "", password_confirmation: "nomatch")                                                      # => false, password required
user.password = "vr00m"                                                      # => false, confirmation doesn't match
user.password_confirmation = "vr00m"                                                      # => true

user.authenticate("notright")                                  # => false
user.authenticate("vr00m")                                     # => user
User.find_by(name: "david")&.authenticate("notright")          # => false
User.find_by(name: "david")&.authenticate("vr00m")             # => user

user.recovery_password = "42password"
user.recovery_password_digest                                  # => "$2a$04$iOfhwahFymCs5weB3BNH/uXkTG65HR.qpW.bNhEjFP3ftli3o5DQC"                                                      # => true

user.authenticate_recovery_password("42password")              # => user

user.update(password: "pwn3d", password_challenge: "")         # => false, challenge doesn't authenticate
user.update(password: "nohack4u", password_challenge: "vr00m") # => true

user.authenticate("vr00m")                                     # => false, old password
user.authenticate("nohack4u")                                  # => user
Conditionally requiring a password
class Account
  include ActiveModel::SecurePassword

  attr_accessor :is_guest, :password_digest


  def errors
    super.tap { |errors| errors.delete(:password, :blank) if is_guest }

account =
account.valid? # => false, password required

account.is_guest = true
account.valid? # => true
# File activemodel/lib/active_model/secure_password.rb, line 101
def has_secure_password(attribute = :password, validations: true)
  # Load bcrypt gem only when has_secure_password is used.
  # This is to avoid ActiveModel (and by extension the entire framework)
  # being dependent on a binary library.
    require "bcrypt"
  rescue LoadError
    warn "You don't have bcrypt installed in your application. Please add it to your Gemfile and run bundle install."


  if validations
    include ActiveModel::Validations

    # This ensures the model has a password by checking whether the password_digest
    # is present, so that this works with both new and existing records. However,
    # when there is an error, the message is added to the password attribute instead
    # so that the error message will make sense to the end-user.
    validate do |record|
      record.errors.add(attribute, :blank) unless record.public_send("#{attribute}_digest").present?

    validate do |record|
      if challenge = record.public_send(:"#{attribute}_challenge")
        digest_was = record.public_send(:"#{attribute}_digest_was") if record.respond_to?(:"#{attribute}_digest_was")

        unless digest_was.present? &&

    # Validates that the password does not exceed the maximum allowed bytes for BCrypt (72 bytes).
    validate do |record|
      password_value = record.public_send(attribute)
      if password_value.present? && password_value.bytesize > ActiveModel::SecurePassword::MAX_PASSWORD_LENGTH_ALLOWED
        record.errors.add(attribute, :password_too_long)

    validates_confirmation_of attribute, allow_blank: true