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Instance Public methods


Same as #count_by_sql but perform the query asynchronously and returns an ActiveRecord::Promise.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/querying.rb, line 106
def async_count_by_sql(sql)
  connection.select_value(sanitize_sql(sql), "#{name} Count", async: true).then(&:to_i)

async_find_by_sql(sql, binds = [], preparable: nil, &block)

Same as #find_by_sql but perform the query asynchronously and returns an ActiveRecord::Promise.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/querying.rb, line 55
def async_find_by_sql(sql, binds = [], preparable: nil, &block)
  _query_by_sql(sql, binds, preparable: preparable, async: true).then do |result|
    _load_from_sql(result, &block)


Returns the result of an SQL statement that should only include a COUNT(*) in the SELECT part. The use of this method should be restricted to complicated SQL queries that can’t be executed using the ActiveRecord::Calculations class methods. Look into those before using this method, as it could lock you into a specific database engine or require a code change to switch database engines.

Product.count_by_sql "SELECT COUNT(*) FROM sales s, customers c WHERE s.customer_id ="
# => 12


  • sql - An SQL statement which should return a count query from the database, see the example above.

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/querying.rb, line 101
def count_by_sql(sql)
  connection.select_value(sanitize_sql(sql), "#{name} Count").to_i

find_by_sql(sql, binds = [], preparable: nil, &block)

Executes a custom SQL query against your database and returns all the results. The results will be returned as an array, with the requested columns encapsulated as attributes of the model you call this method from. For example, if you call Product.find_by_sql, then the results will be returned in a Product object with the attributes you specified in the SQL query.

If you call a complicated SQL query which spans multiple tables, the columns specified by the SELECT will be attributes of the model, whether or not they are columns of the corresponding table.

The sql parameter is a full SQL query as a string. It will be called as is; there will be no database agnostic conversions performed. This should be a last resort because using database-specific terms will lock you into using that particular database engine, or require you to change your call if you switch engines.

# A simple SQL query spanning multiple tables
Post.find_by_sql "SELECT p.title, FROM posts p, comments c WHERE = c.post_id"
# => [#<Post:0x36bff9c @attributes={"title"=>"Ruby Meetup", "author"=>"Quentin"}>, ...]

You can use the same string replacement techniques as you can with ActiveRecord::QueryMethods#where :

Post.find_by_sql ["SELECT title FROM posts WHERE author = ? AND created > ?", author_id, start_date]
Post.find_by_sql ["SELECT body FROM comments WHERE author = :user_id OR approved_by = :user_id", { :user_id => user_id }]

Note that building your own SQL query string from user input may expose your application to injection attacks (

# File activerecord/lib/active_record/querying.rb, line 50
def find_by_sql(sql, binds = [], preparable: nil, &block)
  _load_from_sql(_query_by_sql(sql, binds, preparable: preparable), &block)